Tuesday, July 13, 2010

Who hindered knowledge sharing?

21st century is the era of knowledge economy, in the knowledge economy, not to physical capital as the core, will be replaced by the value of knowledge. This gave birth to a new pattern of wealth distribution - who mastered the knowledge, creativity, knowledge, who will be able to gain wealth. Therefore, enterprises must accept the opportunities and challenges of knowledge, through knowledge gathering, processing, sharing and innovation, access to knowledge, the value, get to compete in the international capacity to cope with the impact of knowledge-based economy. Different knowledge and tangible assets, it has the nature of increasing returns, that the use of knowledge will not decrease the value, but the value will increase. If appropriate measures and well managed, knowledge is shared, its value will grow exponentially. If people sharing knowledge, can obtain knowledge of linear growth. So good for knowledge exchange and sharing of the gains are enormous. On the contrary, if the lack of knowledge exchange and utilization of knowledge not only can not add value, but the knowledge will become obsolete and lose value.

Therefore, in the knowledge economy, to become the pride of the times, must possess full knowledge of the use, in order to carry out on a good grasp of knowledge resources, knowledge sharing is an effective means.

Knowledge sharing refers to the individual knowledge, organizational knowledge through various means of communication is shared by other members of the organization, while, through knowledge innovation, and value-added knowledge of the organization. Only through mutual exchange of knowledge, learning, sharing can be developed, more broad range of knowledge-sharing, its use, value-added the better. Knowledge is only shared by more people, can be greater knowledge of the owner's income.

There are two types of internal knowledge: explicit knowledge and tacit knowledge. Refers to the so-called explicit knowledge is precise, formally expressed, with standardized, systematic knowledge of the characteristics, such as product manuals, mathematical formulas, the corporate sector facilities, as well as external market survey reports on the surface of the information, it is easy to communicate and sharing. The tacit knowledge refers to highly personal, difficult to standardize express, can not spread to other people or very difficult to disseminate knowledge, such as an expertise, market experience. Tacit knowledge is a personal creation and accumulation of long-term results, it exists in the quality of potential owners, and the owner's personality, personal experience, age, training and other factors.

Explicit knowledge relative to tacit knowledge in terms of ease of management, mainly through the code, database and other forms of knowledge sharing to achieve; while tacit knowledge is difficult to manage, their share values by the staff, cultural, psychological, social and enterprise system and other factors in its impact on the management of tacit knowledge is mainly through knowledge externalization. However, tacit knowledge, only a small part of which can be expressed in words, most of it can be felt can not be conveyed in words. For enterprise knowledge that can be liken to an iceberg floating in the sea, exposing the sea visible "tip of the iceberg" as the company's explicit knowledge, while immersed in sea water most of the company's tacit knowledge. Which can be seen through the sea ice immersed in water under sea level in a small part, can be seen as easy-to-tacit knowledge into explicit knowledge, while the non-visible part of the sea is not automatically translate into significant knowledge of the tacit knowledge. Thus, internal knowledge sharing, just stay in the sharing of explicit knowledge is not enough, only to promote the flow and transformation of tacit knowledge is the realization of a truly knowledge-sharing. However, highly personal tacit knowledge sharing and can not be done automatically, but there are many obstacles.

Obstacles 1: Knowledge provider for the monopoly of tacit knowledge

The value of tacit knowledge embodied in individuals who can improve their efficiency, increase output under the same input, increase in personal income, for individual employees, the sharing of knowledge will no longer be following his own unique.

A good cook does not casually pass on to others of his cooking. Because he knows if he's cooking to impart to others, he will be more of a competitor, if the apprentice level than the master, the master who is a risk. Restaurants may be to fire him, asked his disciples to change. If he's cooking in the community spread, the restaurant's customers will be reduced, chef's income also decreased. From this simple examples can be seen, the owner of tacit knowledge out of the ownership, privilege status, dominance status of the consideration, will not initiate the dissemination of knowledge, especially when his hard-won knowledge, who can give him economic or social benefits, particularly when. Therefore, employees are often reluctant to share their knowledge with others, or unwilling to provide time and resources to support the dissemination of knowledge. In order to protect individual interests, people tend to restrict access to public dissemination of knowledge in the field, or control the spread of knowledge and sharing.

Obstacle 2: Knowledge of emotional conflict with the recipient

Reluctance to accept the recipient of knowledge from external knowledge, it is well known. In the process of using new knowledge, lack of motivation will lead to recipients of deliberately delayed, reactive, false acceptance, secretly or openly undermine the resistance of such behavior. Recipients of knowledge can not be fully effective use of external knowledge absorptive capacity and its lack of knowledge has a direct relationship. This absorptive capacity and their knowledge stock and knowledge structure. Lack of knowledge absorption capacity will limit the various departments within the enterprise to absorb knowledge, knowledge transfer will be the suspension of the initial difficulties in knowledge transfer and sharing of excuses, and to go back to the original state to go.

Disorder, 3: Knowledge provider and recipient lack of credit

According to Davenport's view, the term refers to the credit, "believe" or "trust." Mutual trust is the soul of any transaction, knowledge transfer is based on credit, not money. Lack of credit system is also difficult to tacit knowledge sharing one of the reasons. Knowledge-sharing difficulties, because the information generally is an objective fact, and knowledge of the contact or relationship stress, is subjective. The experience of every employee, on the understanding of things and their world view, values are different, their knowledge of the meaning, value and use of evaluation, it is not derived from the same view.

Obstacle 4: enjoy the organizational structure of tacit knowledge of the constraints

Tacit knowledge can only be felt, but can not explain in words, the scope of its spread is very limited and often difficult to obtain directly from the books, only in the actual work to get direct contacts. However, in the traditional institutional arrangements, staff exchange between the corresponding contact and fewer opportunities, can not be achieved face to face interactive communication. Everyone's work is limited to a narrow range of organizations, the managers of the arrangements in accordance with the work of the individual positions can not break through the constraints. The more perfect the system of enterprises, employees work more mechanization, more detailed, long-term employees by institutional constraints, their ability to work and ways of thinking to be confined to a small circle, the can not exceed, for the great sharing of tacit knowledge obstacles.

Found that the problem would solve the problem, to enable enterprises to fully share the knowledge, we must break these barriers and obstacles for the above analysis, given the appropriate countermeasures.

Strategy 1: creation of an enabling tacit knowledge sharing, human resource management mechanism

鈥?Through training, improve staff knowledge and absorptive capacity. Training is to enhance knowledge and learning from the inside to absorb and share the ability to approach. In order for employees to demand and work has grown, now many international well-known large companies, a comprehensive training program. On the one hand, flexible use of management consulting company held a public workshop; the other hand, focus on selected themes, even in charge of all internal staff for training. Through classroom learning and interaction, increase the stock of knowledge, perfect knowledge of the structure, staff knowledge and absorptive capacity, and promote knowledge sharing.

* Effective incentives to promote the sharing of tacit knowledge. Exists in the mind of tacit knowledge is considered a manifestation of personal values, and knowledge and their position in the company and close association with the treatment. Usually with their own employees while others have not yet mastered the knowledge to reflect their own values, not willing to share knowledge with others, if imparting knowledge to others, will affect the stability of their work and personal interests. Meanwhile, the formation of tacit knowledge is personal experience, perception of things and so deep-seated understanding of the long-term accumulation and creation, is the huge investment costs. Staff in the knowledge-sharing issues, benefits and compensation interests of the monopoly will be to compare, select one of the high person. In order to protect the interests of knowledge holders, businesses should develop appropriate compensation system, and made higher than the monopolistic interests of the compensation amount, with interest to drive the sharing of tacit knowledge.

* Appropriate material to encourage the creation of knowledge can play a significant role in driving force, but if such measures are used improperly, may also be counterproductive. For example: year-end bonuses only to increase sales staff to link individual performance, will stimulate enterprise unhealthy competition among sales staff. Therefore, enterprises should not be limited to assessing individual performance, but to ensure that incentive measures to maintain a target balance. These goals should include employees outside the department directly to obtain on the performance of other sectors, when the employee's interests are business performance of other sectors, companies are actually encouraging them to abandon the "mastery of knowledge is to have the power" of thinking given potential, to encourage them to share knowledge.

Strategy 2: Create conducive to tacit knowledge sharing, organizational structure

* Creating Learning Organization. Traditional corporate organizational structure is designed in accordance with the requirements of rigid implementation of management, internal communication has a very difficult gap between the level crossing, this organizational model has blocked communication between employees, to the sharing of tacit knowledge obstacle . The "learning organization" is a motivating learning through the organization to continuously acquire knowledge resources, update their knowledge and create knowledge, organizational structure, which is organized to promote learning and exchange of knowledge, give full play to the team's efficiency. This organizational structure, for excavation, exchange and sharing of tacit knowledge to create the conditions, which enable enterprises to levels of employees in the Organizational Learning face to face communicate with one another through this exchange, the unrecognized persons may have or belong to the implicit knowledge uncovered, and transmission and transfer in the organization to achieve the purpose of sharing tacit knowledge.

* The establishment of knowledge officer. In order to better knowledge sharing within the organization and management of 90 since the 20th century, some foreign enterprises have been a senior corporate management positions - CKO. CKO is responsible for the management of corporate internal and external knowledge, cultivate innovation and collective creativity. The specific responsibilities of their work: to understand the survival and development of the company's external and internal environment, to understand and discover the information needs of the company; organizations to train employees to learn, build and bring a can promote learning, accumulation, regeneration and sharing good environment; on the product market research, design, production and sales knowledge of all aspects of the collection, sorting, set up a business knowledge base, knowledge base content monitoring and ensuring the quality, depth, style, and in line with the company's development; strengthen the integration of tacit knowledge, stimulate knowledge and innovation, and promote knowledge sharing. CKO help to promote the establishment of tacit knowledge exchange and sharing.

* Set up the project team. Project team to complete a task from the set up of different areas of work of employees. Project teams in new product development play a central role in it to provide staff with a tacit knowledge-sharing environment, to enable them to interact, continued dialogue, and promote reflection. Team members through dialogue and discussion stimulate new ideas, their information will be stored together, and look from different angles, and finally unify the different views to form a new collective wisdom.

鈥?Establish Overlapping development team. Very strong in the innovation of Japanese companies, the basic principles of organizational design is overlap, that is, enterprise information, business activities and management responsibilities of the conscious overlapping, as members share overlapping information, they can understand other people to want to show the tacit knowledge. Overlapping development team to stimulate dialogue and frequent communication, help employees to form a "common knowledge base." Strategic rotation is one way to achieve overlap, particularly in and between different technical areas such as R & D and marketing rotate between different departments, strategic rotation of staff from various angles help to understand the company's business, so that tacit knowledge within the enterprise is more easily transmitted and shared.

Strategy 3: Create a conducive corporate culture of Tacit Knowledge Sharing

* Create people-oriented corporate culture. Tacit knowledge is the basis of individual employees, so should people in this perspective, the establishment of a conducive atmosphere for knowledge sharing culture, driven by the culture of knowledge sharing and innovation. For example, from time to time held by employees of small-scale exchange; to encourage collaborative relationships are not permanent employees; facilitate exchange of information on family-business atmosphere; to encourage contact between staff and other non-specific methods of work to create open, flexible, shared environment, so that employees in a very relaxed environment to solve problems and share knowledge.

鈥?Establish a corporate culture of mutual trust. Principle does not mean 100% confidence in the trust and complete loyalty. But as long as the trust as the basis for organizational culture, you can create a "virtuous circle", this virtuous cycle will be moving in the direction of sharing tacit knowledge spiral. Otherwise, it will form a "vicious circle", this vicious circle toward the direction of knowledge protection downward spiral.

鈥?Establish mechanisms to restrict monopoly of knowledge. Executive Order by the enterprise to break the monopoly of knowledge employees to form a shared mode. Should be responsible for knowledge of business investment, but the knowledge of staff employees, the income of employees with knowledge of acts of decoupling, the knowledge of individuals who have not allow owners to benefit, thus, lost the monopoly of knowledge meaning, so that you can make the tacit knowledge externalization and sharing possible.

* Encoding of tacit knowledge. Internal knowledge of coding is to be tacit knowledge into explicit knowledge exchange and sharing process. Including the preparation of quality control system of quality management manuals, work flow documents, working guidance document, records and documents. Tacit knowledge within the enterprise to maximize the visualization, so that as much tacit knowledge into easy to carry out dissemination and sharing of explicit knowledge.


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